Biometrics refers to technology for identity authentication via biological identifiers, which are unique physiological or behavioral characteristics that can be measured or automatically captured and verified.
• Physical characteristics include:
Fingerprints, retina, iris, body odor, face, veins and DNA;
• Behavioral characteristics include:
Signature, voice, typing rhythm and gait.
2. Description of each characteristic
2.1 Fingerprint recognition
A fingerprint image may be captured and analyzed for key features such as ridges, valleys, endpoints and bifurcation points. The outcome of analysis is then compared for identification purposes.
2.2 Iris recognition
Iris recognition makes it possible to establish the identity of a person by comparing the similarity between iris images. This technology relies on techniques such as pattern recognition and image processing to describe and match iris features in the human eye and thus enable automatic identity authentication.
Facial recognition systems consist of two key modules: facial detection and facial recognition. Facial detection involves detecting and locating the face i.e. finding a face in an image and identifying its exact position, then extracting the face image from its background. Facial recognition is the pattern matching and identification of the face.
2.4 Vein recognition
As with irises and fingerprints, human veins are also completely unique. Even identical twins will not have exactly the same veins, while veins on the left and right sides of the body also differ. Many veins leave no trace of their presence in the skin, which makes mimicking veins an extremely difficult proposition. As we age, subtle changes occur in the shape of our veins.
2.5 Voice and signature recognition
Voice and signature recognition is classified as behavioral recognition. Identity authentication using voice recognition is primarily dependent on the sonic characteristics of the human voice.
Face recognition may use either visible light or an active light source, but both techniques are considered to belong to the same type of biometric technology. Images or video footage containing human faces are captured by a camera, and the faces are automatically detected and tracked. This is followed by a series of processes, including image acquisition, face location, pre-processing, memory storage, and comparison to match the detected face with a previously stored face.